Etika in pravno urejanje robotike in umetne inteligence / Ethics and Regulation of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence

Zdi se, da se na mednarodni in nacionalni ravni oblasti in ostali akterji zbujajo iz omame mamljivosti umetne inteligence, ki obljublja olajšanje in povečanje kakovosti življenja. Razvoj je hiter, njegove posledice za dostojanstvo in avtonomijo ljudi, ohranjanje solidarnosti, pravičnosti in demokracije, varstvo osebnih podatkov in zasebnosti pa so nepredvidljive.

Številne mednarodne in nacionalne javne in zasebne iniciative postavljajo v središče razvoja umetne inteligence oblikovanje etičnih meril, ki naj bi spremljala njen razvoj. Te pobude izhajajo iz razsvetljenskih tradicij in liberalnih vrednot zlasti zahodnoevropskega prostora, pri čemer ostajajo na zelo abstraktni ravni, saj deliberativne demokracije in njihovi pravni sistemi niso prilagojeni za regulacijo hitro razvijajočih se tehnoloških in družbenih sprememb.

Zato je pomembno prevpraševati, na kakšen način se temeljna etična načela lahko prelijejo v konkretne in učinkovite pravne norme. Ena od možnosti je samoregulacija industrije, ki pa se na drugih področjih ni izkazala kot zadostna podlaga za usklajevanje in upoštevanje interesov vseh deležnikov, ki se lahko izrazijo zgolj v javnem dialogu. Zato je vprašanje, kdo ima glas pri regulaciji robotike in umetne inteligence, povezano s tem, na kakšen način bo ta glas slišan. Kakšna je pri tem odgovornost znanstvenikov in raziskovalcev? Na kakšen način je lahko upoštevana civilna družba v državi, ki ne spada med industrijske velesile?

It seems that international and national authorities and other actors are emerging from the artificial intelligence umbrella, which promises to relieve and increase the quality of life. Development moves fast and its consequences for the dignity and autonomy of people, the maintenance of solidarity, justice and democracy, and the protection of personal data and privacy are unpredictable. Numerous international and national public and private initiatives put at the core of the development of artificial intelligence the creation of ethical criteria, which should accompany its development. These initiatives stem particularly  from the enlightenment traditions and liberal values of the Western European region, and remain at a very abstract level, since deliberative democracies and their legal systems are not adapted to regulate rapidly evolving technological and social changes. It is therefore important to examine the way in which the fundamental ethical principles can be transposed into concrete and effective legal norms. One possibility is industry self-regulation, which in other areas has not proved to be a sufficient basis for the harmonisation and consideration of the interests of all stakeholders, which can only be expressed in public dialogue. The question of who has the voice in regulating robotics and artificial intelligence is related to the manner in which this voice can be heard. How can we force the responsibility of scientists and researchers? How can the civil society be considered in a country that does not belong to one of the industrial superpowers?

                       Dr. Luka Omladič

                       Dr. Nataša Pirc Musar

                       Dr. Marko Grobelnik

                       Maja Cimerman

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